German constitution legislates participation of states in policy development
Germany’s constitution stipulates that the Bundesrat (federal states) must participate in drafting, and passing, federal legislation. In November 2019, the German national parliament adopted the Climate Action Law and Climate Protection Act, which was reviewed by the Bundesrat and improved to include higher carbon duties on fossil fuels. In June 2021, in response to pressure from civil society, the Bundesrat amended the Act when the Constitutional Court ruled that the provisions for reducing emissions beyond 2030 were insufficient, and hence unconstitutional as they violated the freedoms of future generations. The reform brings forward Germany's carbon neutrality target by five years, from 2050 to 2045 and sets a precedent for international climate activism.
Outputs: Policy Integration
Outcomes: Raise Ambition, Access/Influence
Target actors: State/Provincial Goverment
Complete / Discontinued

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